The Foxes were beaten 2-0 by Manchester United at King Power Stadium on the final day of the season, finishing fifth on the Premier League table.
“I thought right up until we conceded the penalty, our plan was working well,” Rodgers told LCFC TV.
“We knew their threat with their pace and running ability in behind, so we had to counter that by defending a little bit deeper. I thought we contained it very, very well.
“They didn’t have too many shots against us, but we were also quite a threat in the counter-attacking moments. So, yes, I thought we were good in the first half, we just needed a little bit more quality in the final third.
“Second half, we started well and again, we looked like we could threaten. But, of course, we then give away the penalty, and from that point on, it’s difficult because you’re having to really then chase the game and try to find the two goals.
“Overall, yes, we’re disappointed, we’re hurt because this was the final opportunity to arrive in the Champions League. But I said to the players, you’ve done fantastic throughout the season.
“We need to improve the level of ambition in terms of our work, improve the consistency of the work but we’ve got a great platform this season to hopefully improve and develop for next [season].”